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Categoria — Nozioni Generali
By Konstantin Vasilev Member of the Board of Directors of Cbonds, Ph.D. in Economics
Updated October 06, 2023

What Does Diversification Mean?

Diversification means spreading your investments across various assets or asset classes to reduce risk. It’s like not putting all your eggs in one basket. By investing in a well-diversified portfolio that includes stocks, bonds, real estate, and other asset classes, you can potentially mitigate the impact of market volatility and specific risks associated with individual investments. The goal of diversification is to achieve a balanced mix of assets that align with your risk tolerance and long-term financial goals.

Diversification Explained

Diversification is a fundamental investment strategy that aims to minimize risk by spreading your investments across a range of different assets. To achieve this, investors assemble a diversified portfolio that typically includes various asset classes such as stocks, bonds, and other investment options. Studies and mathematical models have shown that maintaining a well-diversified portfolio of around 25 to 30 individual securities can yield the most cost-effective level of risk reduction.

The key principle behind diversification is to smooth out unsystematic risk events within a portfolio. Unsystematic risks are specific to individual investments or industries and can be mitigated through diversification. By holding a mix of assets, the positive performance of some investments can help neutralize the negative performance of others, reducing the overall impact of any single investment’s poor performance.

It’s important to note that the benefits of diversification are most significant when the securities in the portfolio are not perfectly correlated. In other words, these assets should respond differently to market influences and economic conditions. When investments within the portfolio move in opposing directions or exhibit varying responses to market events, the risk reduction effect of diversification becomes more pronounced.

However, it’s essential to be aware that while diversification can effectively mitigate unsystematic risk, it may not entirely protect against systematic risks, such as market-wide fluctuations and economic downturns. These broader market influences affect most assets, and diversification alone may not shield a portfolio from their impact.

In summary, diversification is a strategy that involves building a well-diversified portfolio by investing in a range of assets with the aim of reducing risk. The optimal number of securities in a diversified portfolio is typically around 25 to 30, as studies have shown this provides an effective level of risk reduction. The key is to ensure that these assets are not perfectly correlated so they respond differently to market influences, enhancing the risk-reducing benefits of diversification.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Diversification in Your Investment Portfolio


  1. Reduces Portfolio Risk. One of the primary advantages of diversification is that it reduces portfolio risk. By spreading investments across different asset classes like stocks, bonds, and cash, as well as within asset classes, investors can mitigate the impact of poor performance in any single investment. This helps protect their capital during market downturns.

  2. Hedges Against Market Volatility. Diversification acts as a hedge against market volatility. When investments are spread across different assets with varying responses to market fluctuations, the positive performance of some investments can counterbalance the negative performance of others, leading to a more stable portfolio.

  3. Offers Potentially Higher Returns Long-Term. While diversification may limit short-term gains, it has the potential to offer higher returns over the long term. By investing in different asset classes, investors can benefit from the growth potential of various markets and industries. This long-term perspective can lead to more consistent and sustainable returns.

  4. May Be More Enjoyable for Investors to Research New Investments. Diversification encourages investors to research and explore new investments. This can be an enjoyable aspect of managing a diversified portfolio, as it allows investors to stay engaged with their investments and adapt to changing market conditions.


  1. Limits Gains Short-Term. Diversification can limit short-term gains, as it prevents many investors from putting all their money into a single high-performing asset. In periods of rapid asset appreciation, a diversified portfolio may not capture the full extent of gains that a concentrated investment might achieve.

  2. Time-Consuming to Manage. Managing a diversified portfolio can be time-consuming. Investors need to monitor and rebalance their investments regularly to maintain the desired asset allocation. This requires time and effort, which may not be suitable for all investors.

  3. Incurs More Transaction Fees, Commissions. Diversifying across various assets often involves buying and selling multiple securities. This can lead to higher transaction fees and commissions, reducing the overall return on investment.

  4. May Be Overwhelming for Newer, Inexperienced Investors. For newer and less experienced investors, the concept of diversification and managing a well-diversified portfolio can be overwhelming. Making informed decisions across different asset classes and investments requires knowledge and research.

Diversification Strategies

As investors seek ways to diversify their portfolios, there are numerous strategies available, many of which can be combined to enhance diversification within a single portfolio.

  1. Asset Classes. Diversification often begins with allocating investments across different asset classes, each carrying its own unique set of risks and opportunities. These asset classes include stocks, bonds, real estate, ETFs, commodities, cash, and short-term cash equivalents. The idea is that adverse developments affecting one asset class may positively impact another. For instance, rising interest rates might negatively affect bond prices but could lead to increased rent for real estate or higher commodity prices.

  2. Industries/Sectors. Diversifying across various industries or sectors helps reduce the impact of sector-specific risks. Different industries have distinct operating dynamics, making them less likely to be affected by the same events. For example, legislative changes like the CHIPS and Science Act of 2022 may impact some industries more than others. By investing in unrelated industries, investors can minimize overall portfolio risk.

  3. Corporate Lifecycle Stages (Growth vs. Value). Public equities can be categorized into growth stocks and value stocks. Growth stocks are associated with companies expected to achieve above-average profit or revenue growth, but they are riskier. Value stocks are from more stable, established companies trading at a discount. Diversifying across both categories allows investors to benefit from the potential of growth companies while enjoying the stability of established ones.

  4. Market Capitalizations (Large vs. Small). Investors may diversify based on the market capitalization of assets or companies. Companies like Apple and Newell Brands Inc. have vastly different operational approaches and growth potential due to their market cap differences. Lower-cap stocks offer more room for growth but come with higher risk, whereas higher-cap stocks tend to be safer investments.

  5. Risk Profiles. Across almost every asset class, investors can select securities with varying risk profiles. For instance, in fixed-income securities like bonds, investors can choose from top-rated government bonds to bonds issued by less stable private companies. Different risk profiles exist in various types of investments, such as real estate development projects, cryptocurrencies, and more.

  6. Maturity Lengths. In fixed-income securities like bonds, the maturity length affects risk. Longer maturities are more sensitive to interest rate changes but offer higher interest rates. Shorter-term bonds have lower yields but are less impacted by interest rate fluctuations. Similar considerations exist in other asset classes, like lease agreements for real estate properties.

  7. Physical Locations (Foreign vs. Domestic). Diversifying across different geographic regions can provide protection against economic downturns in one country. For instance, forces affecting the U.S. economy may not impact Japan’s economy in the same way. Therefore, holding investments in both regions can offer a degree of protection against losses.

  8. Tangibility. Tangible investments, such as real estate, farmland, precious metals, or commodities, can be physically touched and have real-world applications. These assets have different investment profiles and risks compared to intangible investments like stocks and bonds. Tangible assets may require additional costs for storage, insurance, and security but provide a unique investment diversification opportunity.

Diversifiable and Non-Diversifiable Risk

Diversifiable (Unsystematic) Risk

Diversifiable risk, also known as unsystematic risk, refers to risks that are specific to individual investments within a portfolio. These risks are unique to the particular asset or company and can often be reduced or eliminated through diversification. Diversification involves spreading investments across different assets, industries, or companies to reduce the impact of these specific risks. Here are some examples of diversifiable risks.

  1. Business Risk. This risk is related to the specific company and is based on the nature of its business and its position in the market. For example, a company-specific issue like a product recall or a decline in market demand for its products can impact its stock price. If you diversify across multiple companies or industries, it can help mitigate risk.

  2. Financial Risk. Financial risk is associated with the financial health of a specific company or organization. It includes factors such as liquidity (availability of cash), debt levels, and long-term solvency. A company with high debt levels may be more susceptible to financial risk. Diversification allows investors to spread their investments across companies with different financial profiles, reducing the impact of financial risks.

  3. Operational Risk. Operational risk arises from issues within a company’s operations, such as manufacturing or goods distribution processes. Problems like supply chain disruptions or production delays can affect a company’s profitability and stock performance. Diversification across industries can help mitigate operational risk.

  4. Regulatory Risk. Regulatory risk is the risk that changes in laws or regulations may adversely affect the value of an asset. For example, changes in drug approval processes or pricing regulations may impact a pharmaceutical company’s stock. Diversifying across different industries can reduce exposure to regulatory changes in a single sector.

By diversifying their investments, investors aim to reduce or eliminate this specific risk. Diversifiable risks can be controlled to some extent by choosing different investments within a portfolio.

Non-Diversifiable (Systematic) Risk

Non-diversifiable risk, also known as systematic risk, is a risk that is inherent in the entire market or economy and cannot be eliminated through diversification. These risks affect all investments to some degree, regardless of how well-diversified a portfolio is. Systematic risks are factors that impact the broader financial markets and are beyond the control of individual investors. One prominent example of systematic risk is.

Market risk is associated with fluctuations in the overall stock market or economy. Factors such as economic recessions, interest rate changes, geopolitical events, and global pandemics (like COVID-19) are examples of systematic risks. These events can affect all investments, and their impact is felt across various asset classes.

In the case of COVID-19, for example, the pandemic systematically impacted financial markets worldwide. It led to a widespread economic slowdown and affected nearly every sector. Government intervention and monetary stimulus were employed to mitigate the economic fallout, but the market was still significantly impacted.

Investors cannot diversify away systematic risks, as these risks are inherent to the entire market. Instead, they must consider their risk tolerance and investment strategies in the context of these broader market forces.

Assessing Portfolio Diversification

Measuring the diversification of a portfolio can be a complex and multifaceted process. While it’s challenging to calculate an exact degree of diversification due to the numerous variables and assets involved, analysts and portfolio managers use several measurements and techniques to gauge how diversified a portfolio is. Here are some key methods for assessing portfolio diversification:

  1. Correlation Coefficient. The correlation coefficient is a statistical measure that assesses the relationship between two variables, in this case, assets within a portfolio. It tracks how two assets move relative to each other and whether they tend to move in the same or opposite directions. The correlation coefficient result can range from -1 to 1, with different interpretations. Closer to -1 indicates strong diversification as the assets move in opposite directions, implying a strong negative correlation. Closer to 0 suggests moderate diversification as the assets have no significant correlation. They may move together at times and diverge at other times. Closer to 1 indicates a lack of diversification as the assets move in the same direction, implying a strong positive correlation. By examining the correlation coefficients between assets in a portfolio, investors can gain insights into how these assets interact and whether they contribute to diversification.

  2. Standard Deviation (SD). Standard deviation measures the dispersion of returns from an asset’s mean return. In portfolio assessment, SD is used to estimate risk based on the frequency and magnitude of returns relative to the average. A higher SD suggests greater variability in returns, which can be associated with higher risk.

    For example, if two investments both have an average annual return of 5%, but one has a high standard deviation (indicating frequent large deviations from the mean), it is considered riskier. Diversified portfolios often aim to balance assets with varying standard deviations to manage overall risk.

  3. Smart Beta Strategies. Smart beta strategies offer diversification by tracking underlying indices while deviating from traditional market cap-weighted approaches. These strategies may screen equities based on fundamentals and rebalance portfolios according to objective analysis rather than market capitalization. Smart beta portfolios aim to outperform the underlying index and can provide diversification benefits.

  4. Count/Weighting. Assessing diversification can involve counting the number of assets in a portfolio or determining the weight (percentage allocation) of each asset. Investors may count assets by type, such as the number of equities in specific sectors or industries. Alternatively, they can measure diversification by allocating percentages to different asset classes (equities, bonds, alternatives).

    For instance, an investor with 15 equities in the technology sector out of 20 total equities is heavily concentrated in technology, representing 75% of their equity holdings. Investors often set diversification targets based on the allocation percentages for different asset classes, such as equities, bonds, and alternative assets.

    Traditional portfolio allocations, like the 60% equities and 40% bonds model, are used as diversification benchmarks. Depending on an investor’s age, risk tolerance, and goals, they may adjust these allocations to achieve their desired level of diversification.


Suppose an aggressive investor is looking to construct a diversified portfolio with a higher risk tolerance. They decide to invest in a mix of Japanese equities, Australian bonds, and cotton futures. To achieve this diversification, they choose to purchase stakes in three different exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

  1. iShares MSCI Japan ETF. This ETF allows the investor to gain exposure to the Japanese equity market. It consists of a diverse range of Japanese stocks, including large and mid-cap companies. By investing in this ETF, the investor can participate in the potential growth of the Japanese economy and stock market.

  2. Vanguard Australian Government Bond Index ETF. This ETF focuses on Australian government bonds, which are considered relatively safe fixed-income securities. Investing in Australian bonds provides stability and income, making it a suitable choice for diversifying the portfolio and reducing overall risk.

  3. iPath Bloomberg Cotton Subindex Total Return ETN. Cotton futures represent an alternative investment that is less correlated with traditional stock and bond markets. By including this ETN in their portfolio, the investor introduces a different asset class, commodities, which can help further diversify their holdings.

The key principle behind this diversification strategy is to spread the investment across various asset classes, each with its unique characteristics and risk-return profiles. Japanese equities, Australian bonds, and cotton futures have different correlations with one another and respond differently to external market forces.

The investor achieves true diversification by holding a mix of these assets through the selected ETFs. This means that their portfolio is not overly dependent on the performance of a single asset class or market. Instead, it is designed to spread risk across different investments, potentially reducing the overall risk exposure. While this strategy doesn’t eliminate risk entirely, it aims to strike a balance between risk and potential returns, aligning with the investor’s risk tolerance and financial goals.

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